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Septic Tank Treatment

All household waste is disposed of through the septic system. The proper operation of the septic is essential to health, property value, and the ecology. All home owners with septic systems should know what the tank and leachfield are and how they work. They should also be aware of the causes and costs of a failed system to better avoid these conditions. The diagram at the right shows a basic breakdown of the quantity and composition of waste generated by a typical household. Remember to consult your septic professional as they can help tailor a plan to your specific needs.

Septic Tank Treatment

  • 40% – TOILET
  • 30% – Bathing
  • 15% – Laundry
  • 10% – Kitchen
  • 5% – Misc.
If you are like most people, you know very little about your septic system. This is understandable. In urban and suburban areas there are sewers to carry household waste to municipal wastewater treatment plants. In more rural areas, however, septic tank systems provide the functions of both sewers and treatment plants. Webster’s Dictionary defines the septic tank as “a tank in which waste matter is decomposed through bacterial action”. The basic functions of a septic tank are to receive all of the wastewater from the house, separate solids from the effluent, provide storage for and decomposition of the solids, and finally pass the effluent our into the leachfield for final treatment.

If you could look inside your septic tank, you would find three layers. The top layer is the “Scum” layer where organic material rises to the surface and floats on the water. Aerobic bacteria in the septic tank biologically convert this material to a liquid. The middle layer is the “Effluent” layer where mostly clear water will be found. This clear water is what remains after the scum has floated to the top and the sludge has settled to the bottom and is the only layer that should enter your absorption area. The bottom layer is the “Sludge” layer. This layer is where the inorganic or inert solid materials and the by-products of bacterial digestion sink to. Anaerobic bacteria continue to degrade this substance underwater. These bacteria organisms will eventually die and form a heavier denser sludge.

For proper separation, the three components must remain in the tank for an adequate period of time referred to as the retention time. Under ordinary conditions and routine maintenance pumping, a typical tank should be able to provide two to three days of retention time. If too much of the tank volume is occupied with the sludge and scum, separation does not occur correctly and solids are passed out into the leachfield with the effluent. This can clog the drainfield pipes and could cause the system to fail. The tank is designed to accommodate sludge and scum for an extended period of time.

After the wastewater leaves the tank, it typically enters the drainfield or leachfield which is designed to provide both disposal and treatment of the septic tank effluent. This effluent flows from the tank in a watertight pipe then is dispersed through perforated pipes surrounded by gravel. The effluent seeps through the gravel and into the soil beside and beneath the pipe’s trenches. The effluent is further purified as it is filtered and biologically treated as it passes through the biological mat on the walls and bottom of the trenches. It is finally taken up by plants or percolated to groundwater.


  • 12 – monthly 2 oz. water soluble packets per kit.
  • 24 – monthly 2 oz. water soluble packets per kit.
  • Bulk Pail of 200 – 2 oz. water soluble packets.

Contact Us:

Micro Environmental Supply Inc.
65-10 Jay Avenue
Maspeth, NY 11378
(646) 221-8619
[email protected]

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